Sanchez-Anguix V, Aydo`an R, Baarslag T, Jonker CM (2017) Can we achieve optimal results with bottom-up approaches? In: Resolution of conflicts in decision-making: second international workshop, COREDEMA 2016, The Hague, Netherlands, 29-30 August 2016, selected documents. Springer, p. 19-35 Sanchez-Anguix V, Julian V, Botti V, Garcia-Fornes A (2012) Unanimous agreements within agent-based negotiating teams with linear and monotonous procurement functions. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Part B 42 (3): 778-792 Over the 30 years we have spent as consultants on hundreds of negotiations, from armed conflict resolution agreements to multi-billion-euro trade agreements, we have codified, making negotiation strategies effective. Negotiators are expected to start well before talks begin, but the process is dynamic and iterative and should continue until the final agreement is reached — and in some cases beyond. With well-thought-out strategies, negotiators can suppress the urge to react to counter-parties or take preventive measures based on fears about the other party`s intentions. They will be able to prepare for the worst, but not trigger it — and identify the actions most likely to have a significant impact on business results. Consider changing your style to achieve certain goals — this may seem unpleasant at first glance, but adapting your style can help you become a master negotiator. The Mutual Gains (MGA) approach to negotiation is a process model based on experimental knowledge and hundreds of real cases, which defines four steps to negotiate better outcomes while protecting relationships and reputation. A central principle of the model and the robust theory behind it is that a large majority of negotiations in the real world involve parties who have more than a purpose or a single concern in mind and who are more than an issue that can be addressed in the agreement they conclude. The model allows the parties to improve their chances of reaching an agreement that is superior to existing alternatives. Productive negotiations focus on the underlying interests of the parties and not on their original positions, approach negotiations as a common solution to problems and not as a personalised struggle, and insist on respecting objective and principled criteria as the basis for an agreement.  The word «negotiation» dates from the beginning of the 15th century of the negotiation of the former French Republic of the Latin negotatio de neg- «no» and otium «leisure».
 These terms mean «business, trade, trafficking.» In the late 1570s, negotiations had the definition of «communicating in search of mutual agreement.» With this new introduction and this importance, he showed a change in the «business» to «negotiate on» the business.  The affect provisions have effects on different phases of negotiation: which strategies should be used, which strategies are actually chosen, how the other party and its intentions are perceived, its willingness to reach an agreement and the final outcomes of the negotiations.  Positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) of one or more trading sites can yield very different results. In the distribution approach, each negotiator fights for as much of the pie as possible, so the parties tend to see themselves as adversaries rather than partners and take a harder line.  Given that prospectus theory indicates that people place more emphasis on losses than profits and are more reluctant to loss, concession convergence negotiations are likely to be more cumbersome and less productive for an agreement When we advise our clients in negotiations, we often ask them how they want to formulate a negotiation strategy.