a «participation agreement,» a written agreement between CPAB and a public audit firm regarding the CPAB`s practical inspection program and the establishment of practical requirements; 164 Canadian companies and 133 foreign companies have entered into participation agreements with CPAB. These companies control some 4,000 reporting issuers and 3,000 investment funds.  Of these companies, fourteen are controlled each year, with the Big Four accounting for 98% of the total market capitalization in Canadian markets and the other ten large companies accounting for an additional 1.5%.  Other companies are audited every three years.  «participating audit firm», a public audit firm that has entered into a participation contract and whose status as a participant has not been terminated or, if its participant status has been terminated, CPAB status has been restored; The CSA specified that a «reporting publisher» (i.e. a listed company) must have its annual accounts reviewed by a «participating audit firm» since it has entered into a non-end agreement with the CPAB.  Its authority is strengthened by legislation passed at the provincial level, of which Ontario has set the most comprehensive example.  A 2007-8 cpAB audit of the accounts audited by Big Six companies revealed that out of 130 audit files, 11 malfunctions were found.  3 (1) When an audit firm has been assigned to prepare a final report on the financial statements of a reporting issuer and the audit firm is not required to comply with the requirements of paragraphs 2 (a) (b) or (c) at any time prior to the signing of the final report, the audit firm must be informed of the reporting issuer within two business days of the first breach. 7 (1) A participating audit firm that aims to prepare a final report for the exercise of a reporting issuer; must notify the audit committee of the report`s issuer or, if the rapporteur does not have an audit committee, the person or company responsible for monitoring and approving the closing of the report, prior to the presentation of the rapporteur`s conclusion if, with the exception of Ontario, the exemption under the first paragraph is provided in Appendix B of Directive 14-101 the status of the local jurisdiction is granted on behalf of the local jurisdiction.