Durand Agreement 1893

The Durand Line (Pashto: ډیورنډ کرښه) is the international land border between Afghanistan and Pakistan in southern Central Asia. [1] It was originally founded in 1893 by Mortimer Durand, a British diplomat in the Indian civil service, and Abdur Rahman Khan, the Afghan emir, as an international border between British India and the Emir of Afghanistan, in order to define the limits of their respective spheres of influence and to improve diplomatic relations and trade. On 26 July 1949, as relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan deteriorated rapidly, a Loya-Jirga was organized in Afghanistan after a Pakistani Air Force military aircraft bombed a village on the Afghan side of the Durand Line in response to cross-border fire on the Afghan side. The Afghan government said at the time that it did not recognize «neither the Durand imagination nor a similar line» and that all the old Durand Line agreements were non-adacleable. [47] They also announced that Durand`s ethnic division had been imposed on them under duress and coercion and that it was a diktat. This has not had any tangible effect, as there has never been a step towards the application of such a declaration at the United Nations, as both nations are constantly occupied by their neighbours during the wars (see Indo-Pakistan wars and civil war in Afghanistan). In 1950, the British House of Commons spoke on the dispute between Afghanistan and Pakistan on the Durand Line by saying that the eastern and southern border of its dominations, from Wakhan to the Persian border, must follow the line on the map attached to that agreement. The Durand Line is the 2,640-kilometre border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. This is the result of an agreement between Sir Mortimer Durand, a secretary of the Anglo-Indian government, and Abdur Rahman Khan, the emir or ruler of Afghanistan.

The agreement was signed on November 12, 1893 in Kabul, Afghanistan. The Durand Line has served as the official border between the two nations for more than a hundred years, but it has generated controversial information for the people who live there. When the Durand Line was created in 1893, Pakistan was still part of India. India was in turn controlled by the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom ruled India from 1858 until India`s independence in 1947. Pakistan also became a nation in 1947.Punjabis and Pashtuns There are two large ethnic groups near the Durand Line. These two groups are Punjabis and Pashtuns. Most Punjabis and Pashtuns are Sunni Muslims. Punjabis is the largest ethnic group in Pakistan. Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. There are also many Pashtuns in northwestern Pakistan, where they dominated more than 103,600 square kilometres of territory before being defeated by the British in 1847. At that time, the Pashtuns were fighting to prevent the Punjabis from developing in the mountains of southeastern Afghanistan.

The British founded the Durand Line after conquering the Pashtuns. 85 per cent of the Durand Line follow rivers and other physical characteristics, not ethnic boundaries. It divided the Pashtuns into two distinct countries.